The Red Fort

This Shahjehan’s (the Mughal Emperor’s) dream in red stone was completed in 1648 after nine years labour of the choicest architects and masons of the time.Its octagonal ramparts are 60feet high and 1.5miles or 2.41 kms.around .It is a typically India fort symbolishing the Mughal power and splendour .It has two imposing gateway-LahoriGate on the western side and Delhi Gate on the eastern side.The main entrance is through Lahori Gate.In shahjahan’s time this citadel was called Urdu-Mualla,but later on it came to be known as quilla-i-Mualla or the Fort of Exalted Dignity.

The barbican over the Lahori Gate was erected during the reign of Aurangzeb,because when the people passed that way,the King’s throne came into view and they had to bow before it. This caused great inconvenience to the people and courtiers,and embarrassment to the King.From the ramparts of this same barbican the Prime Minister of India now hoist the National Falg and address the nation on Independence Day.

The quila was very well-planned and was then executed with almost perfection .It has a complex of palaces amidst well laid out gardens and boulevards,halls of private and public audience,prayer rooms,royal baths, fountains,stables, music gallery, quarters for staff and servants,and a shopping arcade.

Diwan-i-Am or Hall of public Audience is the Chamber where the Emperor used to hold his court and hear public complaints. The precious stones of the royal recess were looted by the British solders, following the uprising of the nationalist forces in 1857.

Diwa-i-Khas or hall of private Audience was the most luxurious of Chambers,where the Emperors gave private and personal audience to the favoured ones. On the marble pedestal in the centre of the hall,once stood the famous Peacock Throne (Takhte-Taus)  said to be worth 12 million pounds sterling at that time.The Peacock Throne of solid gold,was inlaid with many precious stones, had figures of peacocks standing behind it.Between then stood a parrot of single emerald.In 1793,Nadir Shah seized the Peacock Throne along with nine other thrones and carted these off to Iran. The total value of the treasure,from the royal sources alone was then estimated to be Rs.70 crores.Nadir Shah also took away the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond . on the walls of this Chamber ,a Persian couplet is inscribed that reads:

Gar Firdaus Bar Roo-e-Zami-Ast Hamin Asto,Hamin Asto,Hamin Ast

[If paradise is anywhere on the earth .It is this ! It is this!]

The other monuments worth visithing in the Fort are: The Moti Majid or the Pearl Mosque construcked by Aurangzeb in 1659 for his personal prayers-the Rang Mahal,The Khas Mahal,The Shahi Hamams,the Shah Burji where the channel of water ran through the palace complex.Sonet-Lumiere or the sound and light spectacle is used each evening to reenact the history of the Red Fort . Conducted,alternately in hindi and English,the show is thrilling and exact in telescoping the past centuries of grandeur and turmoil that this fort witnessed mutely.

Pinjore Gardens

The Pleasure Gardens of Pinjore, now renamed as Yadavindra Gradens at the foothills , of Shivalik hills, are 20 kms. From Chandigrah, and 12 kms from Kalka.The superb scenic beauty of the place has been a centre of great attraction for Maharajas,saitnts and common folks alike . in ancient times Pandavas came and stayed here during their exile.They built a temple and bath here .Draupadi is said to have used this same bath . in the memory of this visit of the Pandavas,the village came to be known as Panchpura.Pinjore is belived to be the curruped from of Panchpura.

The present garden was built by Nawab Fidai Khan. Governor of the Punjab during Aurangzab’s reign.He was so fascinated by scenic that he at once decided to have a terraced garden as his pleasure reaort.The garden contains seven descending terraces, with an ornamental waterway flowing down the centre and flanked by well laid out lawns and gardens. Overlooking the water course are the three pleasure places-Sheesh Mahal,Rang Mahal and Jal Mahal. The sesh Mahal’s ceiling has numerous mirror pieces encased in geometric patterns.Its windows opening over the waterways offer a beautiful scene of the garden.

The gardens are open down dawn to late night, and accommodation is available in the Rang mahal and Sesh Mahal or in the Guest Hoses within the gardens .Adjacent to the gardens ,is a motel with air-conditioned rooms,a banquet hall and a conference room.


With the partition of India in 1947, the Punjabh’s city Lahore went to Pakistan,and then new capital was built at Chandigarh.This city was christened after Chandi or Durga Devi, is a prosperous and a modern,well planned city .It is actually a Union Territory housing the Punjab.When Haryana is able to build its own capital,this city shall be transferred to Punjab.

This city,about 260 kms. From Delhi was planted and designed by a famous French architect Le Corbousier. It is belived to be a model city and visited by architectural excellence the High Court and State Legislative buildings,in sector one, are superb.

Closely is the Rock Garden, a fantasy in rocks and concrete.Nearby is the artificial lake sukhana sarover, which attarcks the visitors for boating,angling and strolling around it.In sector 10, there are the Art Gallery and the Museum .the museum contains fossils of pre-historical times which have been excavated in India.The Gallery of portraits is famous for its collection of Rajasthani. Mughal and Kangra miniature paintings and also for some beautiful sculptures of Gandhara period.

The Zakir Hussain Rose Garden in sector 16,is snother place of tourists interest.It is believed to be the biggest of its kind in Asia and contains more than a thousand varieties of the Roses.

Chandigarh is well-connected with Delhi by air,road and rail.There is a regular air-conditioned busservice between the two cities. Chandigarh has a variety of accommodation suiting to all budgets.

For duty, duty must be done the rule applies to everyone

Duties have a great role to human beings. Perfect duty makes a man perfect .From dawn to dusk we are rolling for duties and duties. Duties for children, parents , near and dear ,even our nation, cannot ignore. Sometimes we are compelled to do many things .Facing many obstacles and barrier ,we are going towards the end . But the duty for the sake of duty makes a man conscious to what is wrong and right. The student has a duty to respect his teachers .As the same ,teachers should be sincere ,when he is going to teaching .Now a days ,man of our national leaders involve in filthy games .what they say ,do not show any interest to do and what they do ,never say at all. so, everyone dislikes them ,as they are far behind from duties .our society will be the garden of heaven ,if from six to sixty maintain the rules of duty.Life is a great business.make it a fine art .The great men like Hazarat Mohammad (s) ,Socrates,Buddha,jesus,Lord Krishna.always had done their duties in to. We must know ourselves and hide nothing from ourselves .Life is really well and look for profits.Begin to day .A few minutes at night before going to sleep ,what kind of works have been done today ? This is self-examination .This habit makes a man dutyfull.Take any person, who has done well in life .Every minute of his life was connected with duties.He knows where he is going  and how. He controls things.He is the star of the mass.

A great man says , ‘Do your duty without attachment .’ Without expecting result ,we should do our dutie

Taj Mahal

Mumtaj Mahal was the favourite queen of Emperor Shah Jehan but unfortunately,she died in 1630 at Burhanpur in childbirth.The Emperor was grief-stricken for many months and then in an attempt to make his wife’s name last for ever ,he ordered construction of this grand memorial.when the ‘Taj-Bibi-ka Rauza’ was completed,the dead body of Mumtaj Mahal was brought from Burhanpur and laid in the vault where now it rests.

The best architects and craftsmen from India,Persia,Central Asia,Arabia and Italy were engaged to build this magnificent monument of love which marked the consummation of the Mughal architecture.As many as 20 thousand workmen were employed to construct it and it took 17 years to complete. The entire team of the master builder Ustad Isha,a Persian master designer and architect . it is said that Shah Jehan wanted to erect a mausoleum of black marble opposite to the Taj Mahal on the other bonk of the river Yamuna, and then to connect by a causeway, but that was not to be.He was soon deposed and imprisoned by Aurangzeb.

The red sandstone gateqay to the Taj is quite imposing.An Arabic inscription in black marble taken from the Koran decorates the gate .A long water course which beautifully reflects the image of the Taj divides the path leading to the monument into two lanes. A flight to steps leads upto the platform on which stand the flame of eternal love depicted in marble.Its four minarets  stands like the faithful guards.The central chamber contains the tombs of Mumtaj Mahal and her Lord Shah jehan,with inscriptions from Holy Koran.The actual tombs containing the remains of this royal couple are just below in the vault.This vault is normally opened only once in a year,on the anniversary day of the building of this grand edifice.The central chamber is surrounded by eight smaller ones.The light in the chamber is admitted through finely latticed marble screens.The echo in the central chamber under the huge soaring central dome is really a marble. A sound softly produced is echoed in an endless harmony .The superb inlay work of the Taj involving such precious and semiprecious stones as jade, jesper, crystal, turquoise, lapis lazuli, sapphire,coral,onyx and amethyst,glows in the light filtered through the finely cut marble screens.The fantastic and fascinating beauty of the Taj defies description.

The Taj is open to visitors from sunrise to 10 p.m. and entry fee is Rs 2. Every full moon night and four nights preceeding and following it, the taj remains open till midnaight.Children below 15 are admitted free.Friday is a free-admission day for all.